It has been a town since the 6th century, and the county town since the 18th century, when it replaced Buckingham.
St. Mary's Church has a 13th century tower with a 17th century spire. The church was largely restored by Gilbert Scott in the mid 19th century.
The Market Square is attractively cobbled, and contains the 18th century County Hall, the Corn Exchange of 1865, the Clock Tower of the 1870s and statues of John Hampden, Benjamin Disraeli and Lord Chesham.
Prebendal House was the home of John Wilkes, but later became a girls' school.
There are a number of 15th century houses, including the Kings Head, which was once a monastery gatehouse and has a cobbled courtyard.
The Vale of Aylesbury, sheltered by the Chiltern Hills, has long been famous for the celebrated Aylesbury ducks.
The film director Michael Apted was born at Aylesbury.
The TV series "Midsomer Murders" is filmed in and around Aylesbury.
Blue Badge Guide Colin Crosby is available to lead Guided Walks around Aylesbury for groups.